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Utopia Britannica

British Utopian Experiments 1325 - 1945

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Familists 1552 - 1645
FOUNDER/ LEADER: Henry Niclaes
Niclaes was an Anabaptist from Munster. He inspired a group known as the Familists who lived communally and tried to establish ‘heaven on earth’. As their message spread they were persecuted by the authorities.
GRID REF: Exact Locations Unknown
REF: Heavens Below / World Turned Upside down

Hampstead Diggers Colony C1650
Site of planned Digger Colony. (See St George's Hill Surrey for details.)
Ref: World Turned Upside down

Hounslow Heath Diggers Colony C1650
Site of planned Digger Colony. (See St George's Hill Surrey for details.)
Ref: World Turned Upside down

Ling Alley 1651
John Robbins planned to lead 144,000 people to the Holy Land, sustained on a diet of dry bread, raw vegetables and water. His wife was to mother a Messiah and he claimed to have appeared on earth before Adam. The Ling Alley community was raided in May 1651 and the ten people found there locked up in Clerkenwell Prison.
GRID REF: Moorfields
REF: Heavens Below p16

Clerkenwell Workhouse 1701
Attempt by London Friends Meeting to put into practice John Bellars proposal for Raising a College of Industry of al1 Useful Trades and Husbandry. Starting off as a small workhouse factorywith 30 'inmates', making yarn and mops it later became a hospital & nursery and finally a school.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: Heavens Below p30

Philadelphian Society C1703
London base of the mystical group.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: Heavens Below p34

The Fetter Lane Society 1741
Early 'Methodist' group converted to the Moravian church - when leaders arrived from Bohemia they set up a 'Pilgrims House' near the chapel and a series of community houses for members to live in.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: The Moravian Church in England. 1728-1760. Colin Podmore.

Moravian Church C1750
Houses bought by Count Zinzendorf in an attempt to 'settle' the London Moravian Congregation. A chapel and a minister's house were built, the mansion itself renovated, and a cemetery laid out. Plans were made to establish a settlement with choir houses and other dwellings, but these were never realised. (234 years before the Moravians acquired it, Beaufort House had belonged to Sir Thomas More, the author of Utopia.)
GRIDREF:LindseyHouse/Beaufort House
REF: Heavens Below p50

Spa Fields Congregational Families 1821-24
First community set up on Owenite principles by a group of printers. Housed in a number of rented properties 21 families had their own private apartments with communal facilities inc: meals, all domestic services & childcare. They pooled wages from community businesses and outside jobs. Ran a printing press, a community 'heath centre' and planned to open a Fellenbergian school.
GRID REF: Guildford St East, Bagnigge Wells Rd & Spa Fields.Islington
REF: Eve & Jerusalem/Alt Com 19th Cent.Eng/Heavens Below p92.

West Ham 1825
FOUNDER/ LEADER: Samuel Gurney
7 acres of land divided into allotments.
GRID REF: Location Unknown.
REF: Heavens Below p88

London Co-operative Society 1826
Owenite Society registered with the aim of forming a communty within 50 miles of London. There would be `community of croperty' and `equal means of enjoyment', self-government by majority vote, and `to women, forming half the human race-freedom from domestic drudgery of cooking, washing, and of heating apartments, which will be performed on scientific principles on a large economical scale'. Labour was not to exceed eight hours daily. There would be a system of mutual instruction, and all community dwellers were to undertake some tasks in both agriculture and industry: any unhealthy occupations that could not be done by `machinery, chemical or scientific means, or modified, or by rota, will be banished'. The society envisaged a community consisting of a number of adjoining farms up to 2000 acres in size. The scheme was never realised.
REF: Co-operation & Owenite Socialist Communities / The History Of Co-opera tion / The Peoples Farm.

British Association for Promoting Co-operative Knowledge 1828-30s
Originally set up in frustration at the lack of progress by the London Co-operative Society (see above) and known as London Co-operative Society Trading Association it changed its name to BAPCK when it too failed to set up a land based community and became a propaganda organisation. Members were almost a roll call of London's radical artisans of the time.
REF: The Peoples farm.

Co-operative Centre 1827 - ?
Centre of Owenite co-operative activity where publications could be bought and regular meeting were held.
GRID REF:19, Greville st Hatton Gardens
REF: The History of Co-operation.

Barnsbury Park Community C1830s
14 acres of 'Experimental Gardens' owned by the somewhat eccentic Mr Baume who proposed setting up a co-operative college and community on the site. Known locally as the 'Frenchmans Island,', the furze-covered wasteland was dotted with 'mysterious' cottages. Here a group of radical tailors & shoemakers and thier families worked the land co-operatively.
GRID REF: New North Rd, Holloway (now the site of Pentonville Prison.)
REF : The History of Co-operation /The Peoples Farm.

Industrial / Agricultural School 1830s
School set up to train people in the skills needed to live in a co-operative community. Run by E.T.Craig the manager of Ralahine Community. When enough people had been trained the plan was to form a community within 8 miles of London.
GRID REF: Ealing Grove
REF:The History Of Co-operation.

Westminster Co-operative Society 1830s
Largest of the London Co-op Societys at the time acquired land for unemployed members to work on.
GRID REF: Addington.Nr Croydon.
REF: The Peoples Farm.

Lambeth Co-operative Trading Union 1830s
Promoted a Bakery-cum-land society, with plans for a school & library
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: The Peoples Farm.

Spade Husbandry Colony 1830s
Scheme promoted by Edward Lance, surveyor & agricultral lecturer, who advertised for Owenites impatient for the communitarian life to join him.
GRID REF: Lewisham
REF: The Peoples Farm.

1st London Manufacturing Community 1830
Small community making boots, shoes, brushes etc for sale in it's own store planned to expand into cultivation.
GRID REF: Old St. Skene.
REF: The Peoples Farm.

Philosophic Land Association 1832 - 36
'Interim' community set up by 32 members of the Land Ass. They rented premises including a chapel & school room. The group’s leader, William Cameron, a Scottish tailor, was a communal enthusiast: he had been a member of The Edinburgh Practical Soc. & the Spa Fields Community, he wrote his own proposal for a community entitled The First Trumpet, went on to support the Chartist Land Plan.
GRID REF:Cromer St. Off Grays Inn Rd
REF: The Peoples Farm.

Halfpenny a Week Land Club 1834 -
A scheme developed by the Builders Union to settle unemployed members on the land. In 1835 they offered a cottage and smallholding to one of the Tollpuddle Martyrs next of kin.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: The Peoples Farm.

Aesthetic Institution 1839-42
Greaves developed his ideas on sacred socialism here whilst gathering a group of followers together through meetings at his house and writing articles for the Monthly Magazine.
GRID REF: 49 Burton St. Bloomsbury
REF: Search for a New Eden.

East London Branch 1 1839
The East London Branch 1 was formed to assist the
in 1839. William Hodson, the founder of Manea Fen, proposed a Hodsonian Society with regional branches, but the East London Branch 1 was its sole result. It stemmed largely from the Rational Society's Branch 16, in Finsbury.
REF: Research by John Langdon

'Children of God' 1870-72
Original home of group that went on to become the New Forest Shakers.
GRID REF: 107 Bridge Rd Battersea.
REF: Alt Com 19th Cent. Eng

Stamford Hill Cooperative Homes 1870
Early Co-operative Housekeeping scheme.
GRID REF: Stamford Hill.
REF:The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

The Progressive Literary & Spiritual Institution C1871
London recruiting office of the American Shaker communities set up by FW Evans an Owenite who joined the Shakers at Mount Lebanon and became an elder there.
GRID REF: 15,Southhampton rd.WC
REF: Heavens Below

Chelsea Artists Colony C1880s
Group of artists living in the rundown riverside area. Mostly members of the New English Art Club.
GRID REF: Manresa Rd.
REF:The Good & Simple Life.

Tite Street Late 1800s?
FOUNDER/LEADER:Edward Godwin / Ellen Terry
Loose artistic community revolving around Godwin the Architect of Bedford Park and the Actress Ellen Terry.
GRID REF: Tite Street
REF: Villages of Vision

Toynbee Hall 1888 - Present
First of the University Settlement houses. Set up by Canon Barnet to bring middle-class students in touch with working class communities and carry out social relief work. Among the students to pass through its doors were C.R. Ashbee. Willaim Beveridge and Clement Attlee.
GRID REF: Whitechapel
REF: Heavens Below

Wyldes Farm 1884 -
FOUNDER/LEADER: Charlotte Wilson
Gathering place firstly for Fabian Socialists then assorted Anarchists. Later architect & planner Raymond Unwin lived here whilst working on the nearby Garden Suburb.
GRID REF: Hampstead Heath
REF:Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society. 1885
The Society purchased Bostall Farm and in 1900 bought the Bostall estate where during 1903-4 they built 250 houses for sale to members.
GRID REF: TQ468777
REF: The History of Co-operation.

Tenant Cooperators Ltd 1887
Uk's First housing co-operative. Planned to buy houses all over London to let to members at 'local rents' to be financed through nominal £1 shares from members, a loan from the Public Works Loans Board and small investors. Started by buying 6 houses at Upton Park, followed by building 24 cottages in Penge. Grew to have 210 dwelling on 5 sites.
GRID REF: Upton Park, Penge, East Ham, Epsom
REF: Building Communities

'Blavatsky Lodge' 1888
"The household consists of six or seven persons, including a young doctor of medicine, a student of law and a Frenchman, an American (the friend of Edison), and a Swedish Countess. These are all particular disciples, who receive constant instructions from the lips of the priestess...." London Star Dec 1888
GRID REF:17,Lansdowne Rd, NottingHill
REF: http://www.theosophical.org

Essex House 1888-1902
Home of the Guild of Handicrafts set up by C.R. Ashbee as - An Endeavour towards the teaching of John Ruskin & William Morris.The Guild was a cooperative community based on the crafts of metalwork,woodwork and decorative painting.They ran a shop in central London at 16a Brook St. and by 1900 had grown to 150 members. The community moved en-masse to Chipping Campden in 1902.
GRID REF: Mile End Rd
REF: Designing Utopia MH Lang/ The Simple Life F.MacCarthy

Sloane Gardens House 1889
Block of self-contained small flats for 106 women with public restuarant, studios and music rooms. Built by the Ladies Dwelling company.
GRID REF: Sloane Gardens.Sloane Sq
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

'City Colony' 1889
FOUNDER/ LEADER: William Booth.
Trial 'City Colony' - part of the Salvation Army's grand plan - outlined in Booth's book Darkest England & the Way Out. Hostel & workshop, making benches and matting for S.Army meeting houses. The unemployed and homeless worked there on the basis of a days work for food & lodgings. Residents could move on the the 'Farm Colony' at Hadliegh, Essex and eventually to Oversea's Colonies. The plan was to open a 'City Colony' in every town in the country. In fact these became the nationwide network of S.Army Hostels.
GRID REF: Whitechapel
REF: Darkest England & the Way Out. W.Booth / Blood & Fire. R. Hattersley.

Ladies Residential Chambers 1889 - 1945
Six-storey block of self-contained flats built by the Ladies Residential Chambers Ltd for single women. Designed by J.M.Brydon the chambers had a common dining room & kitchen. 18 residents carried out cooking on a co-operative housekeeping system.
GRID REF: Chenies St. Bloomsbury.
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living.

Ladies Residential Chambers Chenies St. Bloomsbury.

Theosophist 'Colony' 1890 - ?
House and grounds rented by Annie Besant. Became a 'colony' of like-minded "earnest, loyal, self-sacrificing and studious" Theosphists upon the arrival of Mdme Blavatsky.
GRID REF:19 Avenue Rd StJohns Wood
REF: Annie Besant. A Taylor

Brotherhood Church 1891
In 1895 the Brotherhood Co-operative Tust was registered and opened a North London store, a 'Mutual Service Circle' was set up using barter notes as an alternative to money.Legal difficulties were encountered over the issue of barter notes as wages. Also a coalmine was acquired at Swadlincote in Derbyshire & run as a co-operative.
GRID REF: Southgate Rd.
REF: A History of the Brotherhood Church. A.G.Higgins

York Street Chambers 1892
Block of 50 flats for single women: artists, authors, nurses and other working women. Common dining room and kitchen in the basement.
GRID REF:York St.Marylebone
REF The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Meckleburgh Square 1890s
Communal house of the Fellowship of the New Life.
GRID REF: Bloomsbury
REF: E.Carpenter Biog

Mansfield House University Settlement 1895-6
Settlement house at which J.Bruce Wallace was warden.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: A History of the Brotherhood Church. A.G.Higgins

Doughty St Associated Home 1895
Associated Home advertising for residents in Seed Time Magazine.
GRID REF: 29 Doughty St WC.
REF: Seed Time Oct 1896

Brotherhood House 1896
Associated home run "on very free lines for young men interested in the movement" by Mary & Walter Order. Centre for the Brotherhood Church & the Fellowship of New Life. A tailors and dressmaking business and a store were run from the house. Taken over by Edgar Bottle who opened it as a socialist home called Morris House.
GRID REF: Waddon Hotel.Stafford rd Croydon
REF: Colony in the Cotswolds. N. Shaw.

Morris House 1897/8
Advert in Seed Time Magazine -
"Morris House has been opened as a home for advanced thinkers and socialists of all kinds and both sexes. The house is opposite the railway station and is within easy reach of the country. The rooms are large and the household arrangements are described as "middle-class, but democratic" - members of the family taking a share of the domestic work. Board and residence costs from 14/- to 18/- a week......"
GRID REF: (as above)
REF: Seed Time July 1897

Doukhobour Community1896
House next to Brotherhood House used by Doukhobour refugees.
GRID REF: Duppas Hill, Croydon
REF: A Peculiar People . Aylmer Mandea

Forest Gate Community1897
Group listed in the Labour Annual as making preparations for settling on the land in Essex.
GRID REF: 14 Leonard Rd. Forest Gate.
REF: Labour Annual 1897

Edmonton Anarchist Group 1898
Co-operative store set up by local Anarchists to raise money to finance a co-operative colony.
GRID REF: Location Unkown
REF: The Slow Burning Fuse.

Linen & Wool Drapers Cottage Homes 1898
FOUNDER: James Marshall (son of founder of Marshall & Snelgrove.)
An enclave of 1 and 2 storey cottage homes, ranged around a garden and a central institute.
GRID REF: Mill Hill
REF: Villages of Vision.

Sesame Child Garden & House for Home Life Training 1898 - ?
Institute closely modeled on the Pestalozzi-Froebel Haus in Berlin. Had 65 students in 1902 and ran classes in gardening, household management, diet and the welfare of children. One of the committee members was Alice Buckton who went on to play an active part in establishing Glastonbury as a cultural centre.
GRID REF: Acacia Rd. St Johns Wood.
REF: The Avalonians. P.Benham

'Fabian' co-op. home 1899
Co-operative home advertised in the May 1899 issue of Fabian News.
GRID REF: 87,Barking Rd.Canning Town
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Hammersmith Arts & Crafts 'Colony' C1900
Loose circle of Arts & Crafts practitioners living in West London. Inc:Arthur Penny, Romney Green, Emery Walker, Cobden-Sanderson & May Morris. Also from 1905 E. Johnston and Eric Gill.
GRID REF: Hammersmith
REF: The Arts & Crafts Movement. E.Cumings/W.Kaplan.

Brentham Garden Suburb 1901 - Present
FOUNDER/ LEADER: Henry Vivian.
Pioneer Tenants Co-Partnerships scheme started by memebers of a building co-op with help from Liberal MP Henry Vivian. In all 680 houses and a social club and recreation ground 60.5 acres in all were built. Parker & Unwin oversaw the design and layout from 1905 onwards. Was taken over by Bradford Property Trust Ltd in the 1940's & run as a comercial concern. Became a conservation area in 1969.
GRID REF: TQ184793 Ealing
REF: Brentham Society Website

Bedford Square 1905 - 1915
Home of Ottoline & Phillip Morrell. Ottoline gathered around her a group of young radical artists whom she supported. Arguably the start of the Bloomsbury set. They moved to Garsington Oxfordshire in 1915.
GRID REF: 44 Bedford Sq. Bloomsbury.
REF: Ottoline Morrell. LIfe on a Grand Scale.

White Hart Lane Estate C1905
Early council estate built by the LCC with some garden city influence.
GRID REF: ?????
REF: Homes fit for Heroes. M.Swenarton.

London Vacant Land Cultivation Society. 1907
Proposed scheme to utilise the 10,000 acres of cultivable land said to be within a tram ride of the Bank of England as smallholdings. Launched at Toynbee Hall by Joseph Fels.
REF: Heavens Below p379.

Hampstead Garden Suburb
Best known of the Garden suburbs. Built by Henrietta Barnet. Laid out to a plan by Raymond Unwin. Was originally to have housed a broad cross section of people, but quickly became an exclusive suburb.
GRID REF: TQ255882
REF: Hampstead Garden Suburb M.Miller & A.S.Gray. Phillimore &Co

Waterlow Court 1909 -1960s
50 flats arranged as a cloistered quadrangle designed by M.H.Baille Scott as a women's home for the Improved Industrial Dwellings Co. Run on Co-op Housekeeping lines until the1960s.
GRID REF: Hampstead Garden Suburb
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living.

The Orchard 1909
57 flats for elderly residents with shared baths, washhouses and baking ovens designed by Parker & Unwin for Hampstead Tenants Ltd.
GRID REF: Hampstead Garden Suburb
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Brent Garden Village 1910
Garden Village set up on co-operative housekeeping lines. 33 households shared communal facilities and servants housed in Brent Lodge.
GRID REF: Finchley
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Great Western Garden Village Society C1910
Developed the Coldharbour Lane Estate at Hayes and at West Acton.
GRID REF: Ruislip
REF: //home.clara.net/sender/brentham/

Romford Garden Suburb 1910/11
Garden Suburb development on the Gidea Hall and Balgores Estates. Started as an exhibition of town planning with 159 small cottages and houses designed by more than 100 architects. Inc. Charles Robert Ashbee, H Baillie Scott, Clough Williams - Ellis, Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin.
GRID REF: London Boro. of Havering
REF: http://www.havering.gov.uk

Upminster Garden Suburb
Garden Suburb development.
GRID REF: Exact Location Unknown
REF: Upminster the Story of a Garden Suburb. T. Benton & A. Parish . 1996

Old Oak Estate C1911-
Early council estate built by the LCC with influenced by garden city ideas.
GRID REF: ?????
REF: Homes Fit for Heroes. M.Swenarton.

Melvin Park 1911
Unbuilt co-operative garden city.
GRID REF: Ruislip
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Melvin Hall 1912 - 1964
Co-operative Housekeeping scheme consisting of 30 flats with communal dining room & kitchen.
GRID REF: Golders Green
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Melvin Co-operative Residential Society 1912- 37
5 houses run as a Co-operative Housekeeping scheme.
GRID REF: Priory Rd.South Hampstead
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Nine Elms Settlement 1914
Womens Freedom League Settlement where children were served dinners of vegetarian soup and large slices of pudding, which they could either eat at the settlement or take home. The settlement also distributed free milk.
GRID REF: 1 Everett St. Nine Elms Lane.
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Wembley Hill Garden Suburb 1914 -
Garden suburb built on Sir Audley Neeld's 220 acre Tokyngton estate by Wembley Hill Estates Limited.
GRID REF: Wembley
REF: www2.brent.gov.uk/planning

Kingsley Hall Settlement 1915
Kingsley House was a mixed sex settlement where residents agreed to the communal sharing of all income, housework, and responsibilities. When Gandhi visited London in I93I, he insisted upon staying at Kingsley Hall rather than in a hotel.
GRID REF: Location unknown
REF: Independent Women/http://www.kingsleyhall.freeuk.com/

Fern St School Settlement
Small women’s settlement begun in Clara Grant’s flat from where she served children's breakfasts, a friend ran a clinic, and a small food cooperative was started. On Saturday mornings "farthing bundles" containing; a toy, cheap candy, yarn, bits of cloth, and other oddments were distributed to children below a certain height.
GRID REF: Location unknown
REF: Independent Women

Nutford House 1916
Residential Club for single women. Single rooms with common dining room & kitchen, social room, library and lounge.
GRID REF: Off Hyde Park
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

The worlds smallest Garden ‘City’
Commercial attempt to cash in on garden city movement
GRID REF: Warminster Rd. S Norwood
REF Semi-Detached London. A.Jackson.

Well Hall Estate 1915
Estate of 1298 houses built on modified Garden Suburb lines by the government for First World War munitions workers. Estate was designed by Frank Baines who had trained with C.R.Ashbee. Some rented property on the estate was managed by the Royal Arsenal Co-operative Retail Society.
GRID REF: Eltham
REF: Homes Fit for Heroes. M.Swenarton

Roe Green Garden Village 1918-20
Estate designed by Frank Baines for workers at The Aircraft Manufacturing Company,
based on his designs for the Well Hall Estate.
REF: http://www.brent.gov.uk/

Bruce Road, Children 's House 1923
Outreach of
Kingsley Hall Settlement opened by H.G. Wells., it is laid upon Foundation Stones which represent:
The Children 's House is still run today as a Nursery School
East London
REF: http://www.kingsleyhall.freeuk.com/

Devonshire House 1923
Design by C. F. A.Voysey for three 30-storey blocks of flats with communal dining rooms, shops and other services. The 'medieval style' tower blocks would have stood opposite Green Park underground station. The design was not built.
GRID REF: Piccadilly, London,
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Dewdrop Inn 1931
Social centre set up by Quaker daughter of Judge Hughes - author of Tom Brown's Schooldays. Mary lived a simple life devoted to helping the poor. The 'Inn' window displayed an array of posters on vivisection, vegetarianism, the effects of alcohol & smoking.
GRID REF: Vallance rd. Whitechapel.
REF: Stone Upon Stone. M.Osborn.

Hayes 1933-36
House used by followers of Ouspensky's 'fourth way' who sought 'self-observation' through physical work including gardening, woodwork amd housekeeping.
GRID REF: (Great West Rd?)
REF: The Strange Life of PD Ouspensky. C.Wilson / Madame Blavatsky's Baboon.

'The Gorgons' C1930s
Group of neo-pagan feminists mentioned by Elliot O'Donnell in Strange Cults and Secret Societies of Modern London(1934) who reputedly lived in a large house on the Thames above London and 'love open-air life and cocktails but have no liking for men'.
GRID REF: Location Unknown (O'Donnell unreliable source.)
REF: The Triumph of the Moon.

Hampstead Artists Colony C1930s
Loose group of artists & sculptors. Inc: Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore, Paul Nash & Ben Nicholson. (formed a group known as UNIT ONE) In mid 30's following the closure of the Buahaus in Germany the enclave was joined by Moholy-Nagy, Walter Gropuis and Mondrian.
GRID REF: 7 Mall Studios, 11a Parkhill rd, 3 Eldon Lane. Plus others.
REF: Hepworth Biog.

'Minimum Flats' 1934
Flats designed by Wells Coates with a bedsitting room, kitchenette and bathroom plus communal services; including bed-making, shoe-cleaning, laundry collection and window-cleaning, and in its early years meals could be obtained from the staff kitchen.
GRID REF: Highgate
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

New Addington Garden Village 1934
Garden Village originally planned to have 4400 houses, shops, two churches, cinema, and village green. Built by the First National Housing Trust on 569 acres of Fisher's Farm. By 1939, when the outbreak of war suspended construction, 1023 houses and 23 shops had been built. After the war 320 prefabs for homeless families were added . The remaining land was later developed by Croydon Council.
GRID REF: Croydon
REF: http://www.croydononline.org/

'Artists Refuge' 1936
Refuge set up for artists fleeing persicution in Nazi Germany.
GRID REF:47Devonshire Hill Hampstead
REF: Phiadon Companion of Art.

Highpoint 1 1936
Lubetkin's block of flats called Highpoint 1 in north London, built in 1936, were described by Le Corbusier as 'a vertical garden city', residents having the use of a communal tea room, tennis courts, a swimming pool and a garden.
GRID REF: Highgate
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living.

Historico - Psychological Society 1936 - ?
London house of Ouspensky's followers. Had meeting room for 300.
GRID REF: Hammersmith
REF: The Strange Life of PD Ouspensky. C.Wilson / Madame Blavatsky's baboon.

Community of the Way 1930s
Small community set up in house owned by Doris Lester of Kingsley Hall. A Christian spiritual community they spent their time spinning, weaving, dyeing, making wooden toys, printing and doing shoe repairs. Bartered their goods for vegetables grown by the unemployed in Kent.
GRID REF: Whitechapel
REF: Stone Upon Stone. M.Osborn

Kensal House. 1937
Housing association flats built including a social club and nursery school.
GRID REF: W.London
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

'Hackney Flats' 1938-40
585 flats built by Hackney Borough Council. Each quadrangle of flats had its own community centre with a hall, clubroom and washhouse provided with individual washing cubicles and electric washing machines.
GRID REF: Hackney
REF: The Architectural & Social History of Co-operative Living. L.F.Pearson

Onslow Sq 1941- 42
House of Primrose Cordington with almost an acre of ground from where a group of J.G. Bennet's pupils grew veg & kept chickens in bombed out gardens prior to Coombe Springs.
GRID REF: Location Unknown
REF: Madame Blavatsky's Baboon

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Site last updated 3.1.2007